Corals, Zooxanthellae and Bleaching

Zooxanthellae not only provide corals with important nutrients, but they are also the reason why corals display a variety of different colors (Morais et al. 2018). Corals that lose their zooxanthellae, also lose their pigments and appear stark white (Jokiel 2004). This process is known as coral bleaching and occurs when the coral must expel its zooxanthellae from its tissues because of a combination of thermal stress and high solar irradiance (Brown 1997; Williams and Bunkley Williams 2000; Fitt et al. 2001; Jokiel 2004; Hughes et al. 2017).Specifically, corals bleach when water temperatures exceed the longterm mean maximum summer sea surface temperatures by 1-2 or 2-3 degrees celsius for a specific period of time (the bleaching threshold) (Brown 1997; Jokiel 2004; Lesser 2006). In the Caribbean, coral bleaching occurs when sea surface temperatures exceed 30 degrees Celsius for two consecutive weeks (Rogers et al. 2009). During these periods of high temperatures, coral zooxanthellae produce high levels of oxygen reactive species (ROS) that damage coral cells and tissues (Lesser 1997; Lesser 2006; Suwa and Hidaka 2006; Rodriguez-Troncoso et al. 2013). Theses high concentrations becomes toxic to the coral and the coral must expel its zooxanthellae in order to avoid further cellular damage and death (Lesser 2006; Suwa and Hidaka 2006; Rodriguez-Troncoso et al. 2013). However, without their zooxanthellae, the coral cannot obtain the organic compounds needed for survival and ultimately begin to starve ( Hoegh-Guldberg 1999; Spalding et al. 2001; Morais et al. 2018). If sea surface temperatures decrease, corals may be able to regain their zooxanthellae and recover from bleaching (Wooldridge 2010). However, bleaching severely damages the coral’s tissue, skeletal growth and immune system; this weakened immune system makes the coral susceptible to disease (Miller et al 2009a; Rogers et al. 2009; Morais et al. 2018).

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Mass Bleaching Events

Depending upon their location, corals are adapted to constant sea surface temperatures, therefore, when sea surface temperatures fluctuate, corals suffer. Studies suggest that a 1-2 degrees Celsius increase in temperature for a few weeks can cause widespread, regional bleaching events called mass bleaching (Spalding et al. 2001; Jokiel 2004; McWilliams et al. 2005). Since the 1980s, the frequency and magnitude of these events have increased on coral reefs around the world (Jokiel 2004; McWilliams et al. 2005). In the Caribbean region alone, six mass bleaching events have been observed and recorded since 1980. The first mass bleaching event to be recorded in the Caribbean region occured in 1987 and lasted for an entire year. During this event, more than 80 species of coral reef symbionts surveyed, including important reef-building species, bleached throughout the Caribbean region and high rates of coral mortality (33-40%) were observed on coral reefs in the Bahamas, Culebra, Puerto Rico, the British Virgin Islands and Jamaica (Williams and BunkleyWilliams 1988). Two years later, a more devastating mass bleaching event occurred on coral reefs in the Western North Atlantic region. Bleached corals were observed on reefs in Bermuda, Texas, Florida, the entire Caribbean region and in parts of Brazil (Williams and Bunkley- Williams 2000). During this event, species of stony and fire coral suffered massive mortalities in many areas throughout the region (Williams and Bunkley-Williams 2000). In the fall of 1995, another severe mass bleaching event occurred in the Western Atlantic Region. During this event, mass bleaching was recorded for the first time on reefs in Belize and other previously unaffected areas throughout the region (McGrath and Smith 1998). High levels of mortality were recorded in species of Orbicella annularis and O. faveolata, Agaricia, Diploria strigosa, Millepora alcicornis and Porites astreoides throughout the region (Woodley et al. 1997). Another Caribbean and North Atlantic mass bleaching event occurred in 1998 causing coral cover to decline by 5-10 % throughout the region. Approximately 60 to 80% of coral colonies in affected areas were recorded as bleached (Goreau et al. 2000). In 2005, the Caribbean region suffered the most severe massive bleaching event ever recorded (Miller et al. 2009a). Bleaching was observed in most Caribbean coral species at depths up to 40 meters and in 22 countries. In certain locations, coral mortality exceeded 50% and in the US Virgin Islands, the combined effects of bleaching and disease caused the average coral cover to decline by 51.3% (Eakin et al. 2010; Miller et al. 2009a; Rogers et al. 2009). Since climate change is projected to increase global sea surface temperatures in the future, the magnitude and frequency of massive bleaching events will increase over time (Spalding et al. 2001; Eakin et al. 2010).

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  • Chevron down References
  • 1. Alemu I JB, Clement Y (2014) Mass Coral Bleaching in 2010 in the Southern Caribbean. PLoS ONE 9(1): e83829. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0083829

    2. Brown, B.E. (1997). Coral bleaching: causes and consequences. Coral Reefs, 16:S129-S138.

    3. Dove, S.G., Hoegh-Guldberg, O. (2006). The cell physiology of coral bleaching. In Coral Reefs and Climate Change: Science and Management Coastal and Estuarine Studies (pp. 55-71). American Geophysical Union.

    4. Eakin CM, Morgan JA, Heron SF, Smith TB, Liu G, et al. (2010). Caribbean corals in crisis: record thermal stress, bleaching, and mortality in 2005. PLoS ONE 5(11): e13969. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0013969

    5. Fitt, W.K., Brown, B.E., Warner, M.E., Dunne, R.P. (2001). Coral bleaching: interpretation of thermal tolerance limits and thermal thresholds in tropical corals. Coral Reefs, 20: 51-65.

    6. Goreau, T.J., Hayes, R.L., McClanahan, T. (2000). Conservation of coral reefs after the 1998 global bleaching event. Conservation Biology, 14(1): 1-18.

    7. Hoegh-Guldberg, O. (1999). Climate change, coral bleaching and the future of the world’s coral reefs. Marine and Freshwater Research, 50(8): 839-866.

    8. Hughes, T. Kerry, J. Álvarez-Noriega, M. Álvarez-Romero, J. Anderson, K.and Baird, A. Babcock, R. et al. (2017). Global warming and recurrent mass bleaching of corals. Nature, 543:373-377.DOI: http://doi.org/10.1038/nature21707.

    9. Jackson, J.B.C, Donovan, M.K., Cramer, K.L., Lam, V.V. (Eds.). (2014). Status and Trends of Caribbean Coral Reefs:1970-2012. Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network, IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.

    10. Jokiel, P.L. (2004). Temperature Stress and Coral Bleaching. In E. Rosenberg & Y. Loya (Eds.), Coral Health and Disease . (pp. 401-424). Berlin, Germany: Springer.

    11. Lesser, M.P. (2006). Oxidative stress in marine environments: biochemistry and physiological ecology. Annu. Rev. Physiol., 68: 253-278.

    12. Lesser, M.P. (1997). Oxidative stress causes coral bleaching during exposure to elevated temperatures. Coral Reefs, 16: 187-192.

    13. McGrath, T.A., Smith, G.W. (1998). The effects of the 1995/1996 Western Atlantic coral bleaching event on the patch reefs around San Salvador Island, Bahamas. Rev.Biol.Trop., 46(5): 91-99.

    14. McWilliams, J.P., Cote, I.M., Gill, J.A., Sutherland, W.J., Watkinson, A.R. (2005). Ecology, 86(8): 2055-2060.

    15. Miller, J., Muller, E., Rogers, C., Waara, R., Atkinson, A., Whelan, K.R.T., Patterson, M., Witcher, B. (2009a). Coral disease following massive bleaching in 2005 causes 60% decline in coral cover on reefs in the US Virgin Islands. Coral Reefs, 28: 925-937.

    16. Morais, J., Medeiros, A.P.M., Santos, B.A. (2018). Research gaps of coral ecology in a changing world. Marine Environmental Research, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marenvres.2018.06.021 : 1-8.

    17. Rodriguez-Troncoso, A., Carpizo-Ituarte, E., Capul-Magana, A. (2013). Oxidative damage associated with thermal stress in Pocillopora verrucosa from the Mexican Pacific. Ciencias Marinas, 39(1): 113-118.

    18. Rogers, C.S., Muller, E., Spitzack, T., Miller, J. (2009) Extensive coral mortality in the US Virgin Islands in 2005/2006; A review of the evidence for synergy among thermal stress, coral bleaching and disease. Caribbean Journal of Science, 45(2-3): 204-214.

    19. Spalding, M.D., Ravilious, C., Green, E.P. (2001). World Atlas of Coral Reefs. Prepared at the UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre. Berkeley, USA: University of California Press.

    20. Suwa, R., Hidaka, M. (2006). Mechanisms of zooxanthellae expulsion by corals: exposure to high temperature in darkness induces zooxanthellae expulsion by coral hosts. Proceedings of 10th International Coral Reef Symposium: 267-273.

    21. Williams, E.H., Bunkley-Williams, L. (1988). Bleaching of Caribbean coral reef symbionts in 1987-1988. Proceedings of the 6th International Coral Reef Symposium, Australia, 3: 313-318.

    22. Williams, E.H., Bunkley-Williams, L. (2000). Marine major ecological disturbances of the Caribbean. Infect Dis Rev, 2(3): 110-127.

    23. Woodley, J.D., De Meyer, K., Bush, P., Ebanks-Petrie, G., Garzon-Ferreira, J., Klein, E., Pors, L.P.J.J., Wilson, C.M. (1997). Status of coral reefs in the south central Caribbean. Proc 8th Int Coral Reef Sym, 1: 357-362.

    24. Wooldridge, S.A. (2010). Is the coral-algae symbiosis really “mutually beneficial” for the partners? Bioessays, 32: 615-625

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